- Alliteration -- repeating initial consonant sounds. They may be juxtaposed, adjacent to each other, or they may be spread out in a sentence or across several sentences.
- Allusion -- a quick reference to a famous person or event.
- Amplification -- repeating a word or phrase and adding more detail in order to emphasize a point.
- Anadiplosis –- repeating the last word of one sentence at the beginning of the next sentence, or very near the beginning of the next sentence.
- Analogy -- comparing two things that are alike in several ways.
- Anaphora –- repeating a word or phrase at beginning of three (or four) successive phrases or sentences.
- Antithesis -- contrasting two ideas, often juxtaposing them in a parallel structure.
- Asyndeton –- omitting conjunctions between words and phrases in a list of three or more.
- Conduplicatio -- starting a sentence with a keyword from a previous sentence. Think duplicate word.
- Epistrophe -- the counterpart to anaphora. Repeating the last word or final phrase in three (or four) subsequent phrases or sentences.
- Epizeuxis -- the repetition of a word for emphasis.
- Eponym -- referring to a famous person who is recognized for an attribute and substituting their name for that attribute--not mentioning the attribute, as in, “He’s such an Einstein.”
- Hyperbole -- a deliberate exaggeration.
- Hypophora -- similar to a rhetorical question—only the question is answered. Usually, the explanation is lengthy.
- Litote -- a form of understatement where the words deny the opposite of the word expected to be used. It frequently uses the word NOT.
- Metabasis –- a quick summary, a brief statement, of what has happened and what will happen. A transitional summary.
- Metaphor -- comparing two different things by asserting that one thing is the other or has properties of the other.
- Onomatopoeia -- using words that imitate the sound the word describes.
- Oxymoron -- a two-word paradox. An ironic contrast.
- Parallelism -- refers to recurrent syntactical similarity. Parts of sentences are parallel in structure.
- Personification -- metaphorically attributing animal or inanimate objects with human attributes.
- Polysyndeton -- using a conjunction (usually AND or OR) between a series of words in a list of three or more. Think many conjunctions.
- Rhetorical Question -- raising a question that is not answered.
- Simile -- comparing two different things that resemble each other. LIKE and AS usually introduce similes.
- Symploce -- using ANAPHORA and EPISTROPHE in the same sentence.
- Understatement -- sharing an idea as less important than it is.